Original page (ru)

Explanatory notes
Programs of CID course ...




for elementary school

© Alla Nesterenko, Petrozavodsk, 1996-1999
Teacher of the Creative Imagination Development Course



The 1st grade and the 1st quarter of the 2nd grade (38 hrs)
              Topical and plot plan
              General plot and characters of lessons


    This program is designed for the 1st stage of training children who did not have preliminary preparation at a kindergarten. It is the first part of this CID program (1-4). The 1st stage of training is aimed at preparing the children's imagination and thinking for creative work, revival of stable interest to solving problem tasks, mastering some tools used both in further TRIZ-CID training process and in other academic subjects.


    The following skills are formed by the end of the program training period.

    Perception - notion - imagination line
  • Imagining previously perceived objects in the 3 channels of perception (visual, audio, and kinesthetic) and keeping them in memory;
  • Imagining an object from different points of view (at different angles) depending on the imaginary position of a viewer relative to the object;
  • Imagining that a previously perceived object changes its properties and fixing the produced ideas in a drawing.

    Tool line
  • Dividing mentally the whole into parts, establishing simple links between the parts, uniting objects into a new whole;
  • "Seeing" an object in time (past, present, and future ); fixing the sequence of changes of the object or situation;
  • Classifying objects by the values of the main features;
  • Finding different ways of changing the values of features of real objects;
  • Seeing "divided contradictions" in objects (combining contradictions);
  • Finding positive and negative sides of objects and events in arbitrarily chosen conditions (evaluating situations from different points of view);
  • Modeling physical objects by the Little Creatures Method.

    Information support line
  • Knowing the five senses of a man (sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste);
  • Knowing the main features of objects perceived directly by a man: color, shape, size, character, height, loudness and duration of sound);
  • Knowing 3 physical states of substance (solid, liquid, and gaseous).

    Productive line
  • Fixing the problem solutions and observations in conditional drawings;
  • Describing verbally or drawing a sketch of "pictures" rising before the mind;
  • Drawing simple images through a description; making shooting sheets of simple plots;
  • Composing riddles by drawing an object piece by piece;
  • Making new systems from numerous similar objects;
  • Making riddles in accordance with the supports that describe an object through the values of the main features;
  • Drawing riddles by the Little Creatures Method
  • Solving inventive problems formulated in the form of a resolved contradiction.


    Segmentation and combination. The whole and the parts. (6 hours)
    Segmentation of an object into parts. The "system tree" scheme. Links between parts. Combining separate objects into a new whole. Repeated segmentation "in depth". The system lift scheme.

    Evaluation of objects and situations. (2 hours)
    Revealing positive and negative sides of an object ("The Good-Bad" game). Evaluation of familiar objects. Evaluation of familiar situations. Evaluation of specific properties of objects. Evaluation of objects and situations that are not familiar enough. Evaluation of changed objects.

    Time line: preceding and subsequent events. (2 hours)
    Remote and near future and past. Making a shooting sheet. Moving along the "time lines", forward and backward.

    Modeling objects and phenomena by the Little Creatures Method (LCM). (4 hours)
    Models of solids, liquids, and gases. Composite static models. Models of processes (vaporization, freezing of water, etc.).

    Features of objects and their perception by a man. (20 hours)
    The channel of perception - methods of revealing. The simplest task of revealing. Features perceived visually: color, shape, and size. Features perceived by ear: character of sounding, loudness, sounds pitch, dependence on the source size, duration. Features perceived by touch: mass, relief, surface shape, temperature. Odors, taste properties.

    TOPICAL AND PLOT PLAN During the first period, the main "load" is distributed almost equally between the tool line and the imagination line. However, when making the plan and plot of lessons, the tool line is leading.

    Below is the plot and topical plan in accordance with the work-book; separately the principles of task planning on the imagination line are described.

    No of
    1. Acquaintance with the Fictitious Country. The kingdom of Break-Build Wizard. Dividing an object into parts. Links between the parts. Combining separate parts into a new whole. 1-6
    2. "The wind of disputes". Evaluating objects and situation. Introducing the "Good - Bad" game 7
    3. The Kingdom of Back-Forth Wizard. Preceding and subsequent events. Far and near past and future. 8 - 9
    4. Acquaintance with Little Creatures. Modeling objects and phenomena by the LCM. 10-13
    5. Region of Five Senses. Acquaintance with 5 human senses. 14-15
    6. City of Open Eyes
    Color Street
    Shape Street
    Size Street and Little Giant Wizard.
    Features perceived visually:
    7. Park of Riddles.
    Game computer.
    Riddles by features: color - shape - size - composition; "Yes - No" game 24
    8. City of Sounds:
    Loudness Highway;
    High-Rise Alley;
    Duration Highway.
    Features perceived by ear:
    Dependence on the source size,
    DURATION. Sound nature.
    9. Travel Recollections. Final lesson or creative work 30
    10. Feeling Region:
    Balance Village
    Relief Desert
    Temperature Mountains
    Features perceived by feeling: MASS, RELIEF, SURFACE shape, TEMPERATURE. 31-33
    11. Odoriferous City. ODOURS 34
    12. City of Tastes. TASTE PROPERTIES. 35-36
    13. Farewell to Fictitious Country. Riddles and problems for the perception channels. Creative and test works. 37-38

    Further we'll give the topical scheduling in detail, describe possible sequence of tasks and their plot envelopes.

    General plot of lessons and its characters

    During the 1st period, lessons are united by a common topic of traveling around the Fictitious Country. The Country has castles (the domains of wizards) (they are denoted with a castle on the map), Region of Five Senses (each sense is a city or region), Park of Riddles (it is situated on an island), as well as rivers, seas and dry land (the teacher and children can people it at their discretion.) The Fictitious Country is populated by wizards (each one has its specific function) and heroes who, as is usual, are distinguished into positive and negative. The latter ones put difficulties in the way of travelers and peaceful population, whereas positive heroes mainly ask children for help in solving their problems and propose them various riddles. The teacher can, at his or her discretion, introduce permanent characters in the plot. One should remember that the main characters of the events are schoolchildren-travelers.



    Dividing objects into parts. Links. Uniting in a new whole

    Methodology: I.N.Murashkovska, A.A.Nesterenko

    N in
    explanatory notes
    Call Break-Build Wizard. To do this:

  • Take only one object;
  • Prove that this single object is in reality many objects (a comb is one, but it has many teeth, a notebook is one, but is has sheets, cover, clips, etc.);

    Combine 2 objects so that they become some useful whole.
    Find out what Break-Build Wizard can do (divide the whole into parts and combine parts into the whole). Drilled are motor abilities: children spread wide their fingers to the word "Break" and couple their hands to the word "Build".
    Acquaintance with the dividing scheme. Dividing an object into parts, making a drawing of one part. Drawing the wizard to make sure that he is really Break-Build Wizard.

    Naming objects divided by Break-Build Wizard (he separated leaves from trees in autumn, a tail from a lizard, a match from a box, etc.) and explaining why he did that.

    Telling what Break-Build Wizard can separate (separating mentally) and what for (a sheet from a notebook - to make an airplane, a tire from a wheel - to repair a puncture, etc.).
    Uniting homogeneous objects into a new whole: drawing figures from circles, building up constructions from matchboxes.
    Determining the whole by a part (the teacher shows a part of an objects, for instance, a part of a toy, and the children guess what toy is meant). Complicating the task: determine which part is missing in the given whole.

  • 2 - 3
    "When I Become a
    "The Land of Riddles".
    Drawing the Break-Build Wizard's riddles: choosing a "mysterious object" and drawing it piece by piece. Establishing, if possible, links (first the riddles are drawn by all the children together, then the children do this independently, proposing the class to solve them.)
    6, 7, 8,
    9, 10
    Work with a picture.
    Dividing into parts, drawing a fragment; simplified drawing.
    A"snapshot" game. The teacher counts to three and the children must draw a specified object (a tree, a bird, or a rabbit) within this time. In the first square (exercises 11-12), there is an initial object, in the second one the pupil draws his own version of the "snapshot", then the drawings are put on the blackboard and the most "economical", the best version is drawn in the third "window".
    A conclusion is reached: to make a fast drawing, it is necessary to ask Break-Build Wizard for help: to draw not the entire object, but only its most distinctive features.

    11-12 I.N.Murashkovska
    "Easy Drawing"
    It is supposed that the
    methods of work with a
    picture described in
    detail in the above-
    mentioned book will be
    further on constantly
    used at reading and
    speech development
    Sketching and linking the picture fragments. "Verbal drawing" of an action-containing picture. 13-14 I.N.Murashkovska
    "Easy Drawing"
    Object linking of heterogeneous objects into a new whole (2 and more).

    Repeated division "In depth" (exercise "Binoculars") is the gateway to the Little Creatures Method.
    The exercise "Binoculars":
    Imagine that we are examining something interesting through binoculars.

  • Focus the binoculars on the object - draw it in the upper circle of the scheme.
  • reduce the field of vision until only a separate part of the object is seen and draw it below;
  • Bring the image into a sharper focus - we already see the part of the part - draw it in the bottom circle.

    A more complicated task is to start drawing from the middle or bottom circle.
  • 18

    Preceding and subsequent events

    Methodology: I.N.Murashkovska)
    N in
    explanatory notes
    Calling Back-Forth Wizard. Finding out what the Wizard does.   I.N.Murashkovska
    "Easy Drawing",
    "When I Become a
    Learning to make a shooting sheet in the natural order (from the past to the future). 16 A shooting sheet
    Making a shooting sheet from the present moment to the past and the future. The same with other (shorter) time intervals. 17 A shooting sheet of a
    process, plot in the
    form of a sequence of
    schematic drawings.
    A shooting sheet - theatricalization or a "live shooting sheet" (each child represents one "shot" of a considered process.) The "guess and keep on" game: One pupil (or the teacher himself) conceives a process (writing on a blackboard, laundering, surgical operation, etc.) and assumes the attitude presenting a "frozen action" at some stage of the process. The pupils try to guess what process is meant. The one who guesses should represent a preceding or subsequent "shot", another pupil comments on the new shot and gets the right to represent another shot of the same process. Thus, a "live shooting sheet" is formed.   It is supposed that the
    shooting sheet will be
    further on regularly
    used at reading and
    speech development
    lessons. In CID lessons
    it makes sense to
    regularly fix the travel
    stages in the form of a
    shooting sheet (tasks
    34, 64, 86).

    Evaluating objects and situations ("Good-Bad" game)

    Idea: N.N.Lopatina. Methodology of K.G.Shub, M.N.Shusterman, I.N.Murashkovska

    N in
    explanatory notes
    "Good-Bad" game

    Children are divided into 2 teams. One team names positive features of a specified object or phenomenon (+), while the other one names negative features (-). The winner is the team, which finds more arguments. The game is conducted in the following succession:

  • using familiar objects (a chocolate bar, a piece of chalk…);
  • using familiar situations (we are swimming in a river…);
  • discussing a specific property (why is it good for a fish to be small, why is it bad? when is it better to wear a light shirt, when is it better to wear a dark shirt?, etc.);
  • the same with less familiar objects (round house, triangular house);
  • from different points of view: for whom is a specific property good, for whom is it bad?
  • possibilities of a changed object: imagine that we are gradually increasing (decreasing) in size (other properties): what is now convenient for us to do, what is inconvenient? ("I am so big that…")
  • 45
    A possible plot is the wind of disputes. There is often the wind of disputes blowing in the Fictitious Country. Only a good dispute can stop the wind (the Good-Bad game). It is also convenient to use other plots: "a shop" (the salesmen praise the goods and the buyers scold them), the court (the prosecutor accuses and the advocate defends), and judges try to resolve the contradictions occurring during the dispute), etc.

    See A.A.Nesterenko "CID Games for Elementary School", S.I.Gin. "The World of Man".

    Modeling objects and phenomena by the Little Creatures Method (LCM)

    Idea: G.S.Altshuller, S.V.Ivanov, et al. Methodology: I.N.Murashkovska The essence of the method consists in imagining any substance as consisting of very little creatures. The state of aggregation (solid, liquid, gaseous) of a substance depends on the behavior of the creatures, whereas the motion and arrangement of the creatures explain different physical phenomena (9).

    N in
    explanatory notes
    Break-Build Wizard focuses binoculars on smaller and smaller parts and sees that everything around him consists of small particles - "little creatures" - and those creatures behave in different ways. Task: Explain what is the difference between little creatures in different objects.    
    Story of a lamb The lamb thought he was very strong, so he decided to break a stone (dramatization: one child represents the lamb, while a group of children represent the creatures of the stone). No doubt, the lamb cannot break the stone.

    Why? The children pore at the problem and show how the creatures of the stone should behave for the lamb not to break them (they should hold hands). Then we find out what else is made of such creatures. Another time the lamb saw the smooth surface of a well and thought that it was as hard as the stone. He wanted to run on the water surface.

    The children represent water in the well and decide how the creatures of water should behave if it is clear that they will part to pass the lamb (they are close to each other, hustling a little but not holding hands). Then they find out what else is made of such little creatures.
    19 The given methodology is based on the seminars of I.N.Murashkovska.
    Then the teacher performs a "conjuring trick": he shows an empty plastic bag and then rolls it up. The bag fills out with air. The teacher asks whether there are little creatures in the bag. If the bag is full, there are certainly little creatures in it. Moreover, the teacher knows for certain that they are invisible. Why don't we see them? The following experience is relevant here: the teacher puts three very small dots on the blackboard. The children can hardly see them. What should be done to make even so little dots visible? The children think that the dots should be put very close to each other. Now we can arrive at a conclusion that air and other gases are transparent because little creatures are placed too far from one another and are constantly in motion.
    The children model the little creatures of gas and find out what else consists of them.
    The "Solid - Liquid -Gas" game The teacher (conductor) names homogeneous substances or objects and the children represent little creatures: solid creatures (the children hold hands), liquid creatures (they stand in a crowd not holding hands), gaseous creatures (they disband).

    What kinds of little creatures are in an object? (use arrows to show what kind of little creatures is present in an object). Discussion of "captious questions":

  • are there always solid creatures in an umbrella? (when the umbrella is sopped in the rain, little creatures of liquid appear in it),
  • what creatures does a fish (tree, man) consist of? (it becomes clear that practically any living being contains all kinds of little creatures), etc.
  • 23  
    Make a riddle: draw objects using little creatures. 22-24.
    Solve riddles (restore an object from a model): What is Break-Build Wizard examining through the binoculars if he sees such creatures? 22, 28,
      30, 31,
    Modeling phenomena with the help of little creatures Transformation of little creatures. What happens to the little creatures of water in winter?
    Where do little creatures disappear from a glass of water? Explaining more complicated phenomena with the aid of the LCM model.
    What kind of little creatures and why is responsible for holding shape?
    What kind of little creatures conduct sound better and faster?
    (Sound can be modeled by pushing the last little creature. Then you can see that the easiest way to conduct sound is by holding hands, while it is most difficult for the little creatures of gas to do this, because they touch one another much more rarely then other kinds of little creatures do).

    5 senses of a man

    Methodology: M.S.Gafitulina, A.A.Nesterenko)

    N in
    explanatory notes
    To get to the Region of Five Senses, it necessary to clear up which five senses (five helpers) are meant. The teacher shows the object and asks: What is this? The children answer. The teacher says: I showed this object to one man and he could not answer what it was. Why? (shut eyes).

    Then we "switch off" this helper and pass through the gates of Shut Eyes.

    Then we choose a pilot (he has a blindfold) and produce in turn different objects that can be easily identified by sound (a tambourine), by feeling (a fork), by smell (perfumes, soap), by taste (a berry). The class performs the role of the remaining "helpers".

    The verbal and kinesthetic supports are drilled: a man has 5 senses and 5 ways of revealing (seeing, hearing, smelling, touching and tasting).

    Draw a poster "5 Helpers"

    Break-Build Wizard accidentally separated 5 senses and they quarreled with each other. Each of them declares that it can do without the other senses. Prove that it is not easy at all.

  • Pass a message to a man with "switched off" ears.
  • Draw something with "switched off" eyes.
  • Wrap hands with sleeves and name the greatest possible number of actions that are difficult to perform without touch.
  • Pinch your nose and play the Good Bad game (see why the sense of smell is useful and why it is harmful).
  • Distinguish caster sugar from cooking soda (small-grinding salt, starch).

    Conclusion: All 5 senses are necessary.
  •   Another version of tasks can be found in the work by A.A.Nesterenko "The Land of Riddles".

    Main features of objects

    Methodology: A.A.Nesterenko

    N in
    explanatory notes
    Identifying the spectrum of values.
    For "discrete" features (color, shape, sound character, taste, smell) a bank of values is collected. First in oral work, then by fixing the most interesting versions in WB.

    Note: we collect not objects, but exactly values of features (properties), that is why a flower is drawn over the bank (not the flower itself, but its scent only gets into the bank).
    The same with the bank of tastes.
    For the remaining features the first question is how to describe a feature. The relativity of such characteristics as "big", "loud" and the like becomes apparent. Further on description through comparison is introduced (bigger than,… but smaller than…; "as loud as…" In Davydov classes it is quite natural to remember of measure. (When studying mathematics according to Elkonin-Davydov system, children first measure objects (their size, mass, etc.) with yardsticks (paper strip, thread and the like).

    48, 66
    , 87, 91
    In the program of the 1st grade, only features that are directly perceived by a man are studied. They are grouped by 5 senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste). In the plot, every sense is a city or district (streets, alleys, highway, village and the like). The inhabitants of the street can change by magic all their properties except the values of the given feature, so they choose relatives by this feature. The pass to the territory marked by the feature with discrete (separate) values (color, shape, sound character, smell, taste) is the bank collected by the children (the bank of colors, shapes…), while the territories denoting a feature with continuous (measurable) values (loudness, shape…) are arranged in line (highways, alleys, mountains). When moving along them, the object gradually changes the feature value. Here a new wizard appears - Little Giant. He can increase or decrease any feature value (size, temperature, mass, etc.) as he wants.
    Segmenting a feature itself (on the acquaintance level): dimensions - linear, plane; volume, the same with shapes…

    Combining by a feature (search for relatives): everything that is red, everything that cheeps…

    Imagining how an object changes preserving only a given feature (only color, only size…) 39, 40,
    50, 57
    Modeling properties (where possible) by LCM. 49, 73  
    Appraising feature values in a specific object, specific situation (round house: "good - bad…")
    51, 52  
    Changing feature values.
    Search for methods.
    The same when solving problems. 61, 67,
    Fantastic changes in a feature. Little Giant Wizard. Evaluating the consequences of such changes. 63, 64 Little Giant Wizard "is occupied" not only by changing the size: he can increase or decrease any property (loudness, weight, etc.).
    You can read about him in more detail in the book by I.N.Murashkovska "When I Become a Wizard."
    Combining different or opposite values of a feature in one object:

  • without additional limitations: (give examples: what is both solid and soft);
  • 46, 83,
    A.A.Nesterenko. "Happy Voyage on the Sea of Contradictions".
    The work-book gives only part of tasks of each of the mentioned types - those to be fulfilled in writing.
  • the same with specified methods of separation of opposites
    (part is solid, part is soft…);
  • 76,
    The rest of the tasks are proposed by a teacher. They are based on the types of tasks given in this program.
  • the same with a preset result
    (savory + unsavory = savory)
  • 83 It is not difficult: try and you'll certainly manage!
  • The same in problems
  • 42, 45,
    53, 56,
    Detailed solution to problems is described in Appendix 1.
    Describing an object through the values of features (making riddles).
    Search for an object by the sum of features (solving riddles).
    65, 95. A.A.Nesterenko.
    "The Land of Riddles".
    Independent exploration of values of mysterious object features (the "Yes - No" game).
    The "Yes - No" game or a dialog with a computer is conducted in the following way.
    One pupil thinks of an object, action or event and proposes the class to guess it. The class asks questions to which either yes or no can be answered (the answer "it makes no difference is also allowed).
    The task is to guess the word by asking as few questions as possible.
      A.A.Nesterenko "The Land of Riddles". Detailed information on the use of the "Yes-No" game can be found in the article by N.N.Khomenko (31).


    (texts and explanatory notes for solving)

    Problem 1. Topic "COLOR" (N 45 in WB)

    A gnome wanted to go on a voyage to meet his friends. His boat was small; it could not bear excess weight. The gnome decided to go for a short time and not to take too much clothing with him. He put on a dark suit, justly thinking that his friends will then better see him (and he wanted to meet them directly on the river). What happened to him? (HIS FRIENDS DID NOT NOTICE HIM, BECAUSE HE MET THEM IN THE DARK AND HIS DARK SHIRT WAS UNSEEN. Then the gnome went on a voyage again. That time he put on a light shirt. And what happened? (THAT TIME, AS LUCK WOULD HAVE IT, HE MET HIS FRIENDS UNDER A GLINTING SUN AND THE FRIENDS DID NOT NOTICE HIM). The gnome asks us to solve the problem: What color should be the shirt for his friends to see it any time of a day? HIS SHIRT SHOULD BE DARK AND LIGHT.
    HOW TO MAKE SUCH A SHIRT? (Answer: A striped sailor's frock)

    We meet two birds-quarrelers - a mother and a daughter.
    The mother is flying high; her daughter is flying lower. When flying over our street, the mother bird is singing: I see a circle, a see a big circle…, while the daughter does not agree: what do you say, mother, it's not a circle, it's a rectangle. Who is right? What house did the mother and the daughter see? (CYLINDER: IT IS A CIRCLE FROM ABOVE, ITS SIDE-VIEW IS A RECTANGLE.) The same with a cone and a prism.

    Problem 3. Topic "Shape" (¹ 56 in WB).

    In a cylinder house a homemaker is jamming. The berries are cylindrical. The homemaker puts jam into pots of different sizes. But what a trouble! There are no lids for those pots! There is a craftsman who can make lids of equal size, but the problem is that the pots have different throats. Break-Build Wizard is sure that all these lids can be combined into one that could fit any throat. And there exists a house where you can certainly find such a lid. What kind of lid is it? (CONE)
    NOTE: Let's expand on the versions of formulating this very uneasy problem. The lids should be equal - this is the craftsman's condition, and they should be different to close different throats. Here a demonstrative example can be given: two pots with different throats need two different lids. And there is only ONE lid. ONE lid made of DIFFERENT circles. You may propose children to make such a lid. They will see themselves that the solution to this problem is a simple truncated cone.

    Problem 4. Topic "Size" "(¹ 62 in WB).

    Break-Build Wizard is disappointed. His friend invited him to his place. He said that he had a very spacious apartment. But when the wizard came to his friend's place, he even couldn't enter his apartment. Try to guess who was the friend who played the fool with him. (It was his friend ant. His house seemed very big to him, while we think it was small. ) The possible answer is that it is Little Giant WHO BECAME SMALL JUST AT THAT MOMENT.

    Problem 5. Topic "Size" (¹ 61 in WB).

    In the Size street, there is a pond where a ball fish lives. No wonder this fish lives in this precisely pond, because facing a flesh-eater, the ball fish balloons out increasing in size by several times. And nobody, even Little Giant himself, whom the fish never asks for help, knows how the ball fish manages to do this. Let's try to solve the riddle of the ball fish. (THE FISH INCREASES IN SIZE BY SWALLOWING A LARGE PORTION OF WATER).

    NOTE: to solve this problem, first it is necessary to say WHY it is convenient for the ball fish to be big and WHY it is convenient to be small (a small fish needs less food, it is easier for it to hide from danger; for a big fish it is easier to save itself from a big flesh-eater). Then the problem is solved as a resource one: the fish has to add something to itself in order to increase in size and it hasn't to do this in order to remain small when danger is far. Let's specify that air does not fit - there is too little air in water.

    Problem 6. Topic "Size" (¹ 59 in WB).

    Little Giant has a daughter - a beautiful princess (or just a beauty). Her father is very strict, he doesn't indulge her, so she lives a small way in her small castle and works like all other people. One day Little Giant made her a gift of a dress-length. The princess liked it so much that she immediately rushed to a tailor. The tailor asked her: do you wish to have a long or a short dress? The princess wants her dress to be long and short at the same time. (EXPLAIN WHAT A LONG DRESS AND WHAT A SHORT DRESS CAN BE USEFUL FOR). The tailor asks the girl whether she wants a wide or a narrow dress and she again wants to have it both ways. (Explain again what is good about a long dress and why a short one is useful).

    She doesn't want to ask her father to give her a larger dress-length because she usually solves her problems herself. Let's help her. NOTE: we are solving two contradictions (long - short and wide - narrow). One of them can be solved in class using a real dress - let the children show where to sew bands or a zipper in order to solve the contradiction, the other one can be drawn in a notebook at home.

    Task 7. Topic "Sound" (¹ 67 in WB)

    A small bucket got tired of living in the same house with those who rattle. It asks for help in moving to a different place. To do this, the bucket must learn to produce a different sound. (POSSIBLE SOLUTION: POUR WATER INTO THE BUCKET AND THE BUCKET WILL BUBBLE).

    Task 8. Topic "Mass" (¹ 75 in WB)

    The dweller of one of "light" houses - a nice cloth cape - asks how to become heavier: it wants to move to the place of its acquaintance - a fur coat, but with such a light weight she has nothing to do in the fur coat's house. The cape doesn't want to have anything sewn on it. Let's help it solve this problem. (We can propose the cape to dip itself in water. It will become wet and much heavier).

    Task 9. Topic "Mass" (¹¹ 76-77 in WB)

    We meet three indignant wizards. They are going from the post office and a dispute is growing warm between them. The fact is that Little Giant's daughter sent him a parcel with a big sweet surprise. There is the mass indicated on the parcel - 10 kg (just imagine what a mass it is - 10 kg!). But Little Giant received quite a light parcel; its weight is less than 1 kg.

    It was heavy and became light. Little Giant knows precisely that nobody could open the parcel at the post office without his permission. He is sure this has something to do with the wizards. Either Back-Forth confused the time and Little Giant received somebody else's parcel, or Break-Build Wizard separated the greater part from the parcel. The indignant wizards insist on not knowing about this parcel at all.

    Let's reconcile the wizards. Try to solve the problem: what did the princess put into the parcel if first it was heavy and then became light. Let's draw a conclusion: if it became lighter on its way to the addressee, it means that it contained something that could "go away" through the closed lid (what kind of little creatures is capable of this?) (ICE CREAM). Make a drawing in the WB.

    Task 10. Topic "Temperature" (¹ 82 in WB)

    One end of the Relief Desert abuts with the Temperature Mountains. The top of the Mountains is snow-capped. The snow is spongy and fleecy. Below, the snow is melting, dense and tramped down. There are hares running there. A camel can't grasp why hares never sink into the snow. How is the hare's paw "constructed"?
    (Represent with a hand the hare's paw on the snow). What should the paw be like for the hare to run on the dense snow? (NARROW, COMPACT). And what should it be like not to sink into the spongy snow? (WIDE, SPREAD). How is the hare's paw "constructed"? (IT CHANGES DEPENDING ON THE SURFACE ON WHICH THE HARE RUNS: NOW WIDE, NOW NARROW).

    Task 11. Topic "Farewell to the Fictitious Country (¹ 94 in WB).

    The inhabitants of the Fictitious Country ask us to contrive alarm clocks for all inhabitants of the 5 Sense Region. Alarm clocks should awake not only the ears, but also the eyes, nose and the whole body. There should be even an alarm clock to awake tastes!


    On this line we teach children to imagine. We teach children to imagine objects previously perceived as the whole, then mentally divide them into parts and combine these parts into a new whole, analyze the newly created whole and compare it with the source objects. In this program, this line is the least tackled, so the author thinks it expedient to propose a morphological table (see Table 1) as a tool for obtaining tasks of different degrees of complexity, and to give an example of how she plans this line. The author, however, does not insist on its correctness.


      A B C D E F G H I
    1. Demostrativeness v,k,a V,k v,a V a,k k A No
    2. Verbal description v,k,a V,k v,a V a,k k A No
    3. Familiarity familiar less unfamiliar Unfamiliar          
    4. Dynamics static dynamic            
    5. Aspect (point of view) customary new (familiar) new (unfamiliar) Changing        
    6. System grade +-1 +-2 +-3 +-4 +-5 +-6 +-7 ...
    7. Required* Arbitrarily (v) (v,k) (v,a) (v,a,k) (k) (k,a) Ó+Î (k)

    *It is indicated in the predicates of which channels children must "produce information", i.e., describe what they imagined.

    Explanatory notes to Table 1

  • The complexity of tasks in each line of the table increases from left to right in accordance with the column number. Correct is considered such a transfer from one task to another, where there is an increase by 1 number of a column (for instance, it is correct to transfer from the task to examine attentively an object listening at the same time to the teacher's comments to the task to remember how the object looks without seeing it, but listening to the teacher's description, then to remember it without seeing and without hearing the description. It is clear, that some type of tasks can be omitted depending on the child's preparation level.

  • The lines "Demonstrativeness" and "Description" point to the perception channels in which demonstrativeness is set and in the predicates of which, correspondingly, the object is described (V - visual channel, A - audio channel, K - kinesthetic channel). It is obvious that the task complexity for a given child will depend on which channel is leading for him. The table makes an attempt to present an averaged version.

  • The line "Familiarity" indicates the presence/absence of an object in the child's experience: it is easier to imagine a tea cup used every day, than a boat sailed in summer and much easier than to imagine the sea never seen in the life.

  • The line with the conditional name "System grade" supplements and specifies the notion of the object "familiarity". Note: it is easier to imagine a cup than to imagine the handle of a cup and easier than to imagine a laid table. Let us give grade "0" to everything children usually perceive (or are ready to perceive in a given situation) as the whole (a tree, clock, garage, room, house, depending on the situation). Grade -+1 - denotes objects to imagine which it is necessary to perform a system transfer (forest - transfer to the supersystem of a tree (+1), a branch - transfer to the subsystem (-1). Correspondingly +2 points to the immobility, changeability of an imagined object. It is more difficult to imagine actions than a still picture.
    *The notion "elongation of a system grade" was proposed by
    I.N.Murashkovska. The author just tries to use it for its own purposes.

  • The line "Point of view" indicates only the position of a viewer relative to the object being examined.

  • The line "Required" is realized by the teacher's leading questions or by a preset scheme of an answer. For instance, the teacher can describe a river by visual predicates and ask children what they have heard or felt on the river. Note that the word-stock for descriptions is accumulated on the information line in banks of feature values. The description quality itself is drilled at speech development lessons (11), whereas here it is important to make sure that the image is re-created by the child.

  • Note also that this table can be useful for association development tasks, which appear in the 2nd period program.


    1. Switching on the channels:

  • Visual ('I see what nobody sees…" - viewing attentively objects in order to notice minor details;
  • Audio (Listening to sounds with eyes shut in a classroom, hall, or in the street);
  • Kinesthetic (palpating objects, comparing them by feeling).

    2. Remembering an object in different channels: visual (how it looks), audio (how it sounds in contact with different objects), kinesthetic (what it is like by feeling). The work is accompanied by the teacher's comments, and then it is done independently. Objects are changed - from static to dynamic, from familiar to less familiar.

    3. Imagining from different points of view.
              3.1. A child should imagine himself standing in a certain place of the classroom. He describes an object as if he sees it from that point. Other children must guess what is meant.
              3.2. "I hid in a picture". Children imagine that they entered a picture and each of them occupied a certain place there. Each viewer describes the picture from inside looking from the imaginary place. Other children try to guess where each of them hid.

    4. Imagining and guessing familiar objects by description (the teacher or some of children describe an object, the rest of the children imagine and guess it). (From familiar objects to less familiar, from static to dynamic).

    5. Imagining an unfamiliar object by description (exercise of type 51 in WB).

    6. Imagining familiar objects without a description, original oral story about an imagined object or drawing (from familiar object to less familiar, from static to dynamic, from "0" grade to +1 grade). For instance, imagining, describing and drawing a wizard (WB N 4, 16, 58), animals from a zoo (N 44), Wicked Eraser (N 43), an occupant of a triangular house (N 52)… Let's imagine that we entered the Break-Build Wizard's castle. What did we see there? We entered a mysterious wood… We are sailing down the river… In all the tasks, a verbal support is used. I see… I hear… I feel…" (20).

    7. Imagining fantastic transformations of an object. ("In the Color street, there are houses, the occupants of which can change as they like, unchanged remains only their color. Imagine how such an occupant changes. " First the teacher describes, children imagine, draw, then the children imagine, describe and draw themselves…) The exercise is repeated (NN 39, 40, 50, 57)

    8. Imagining oneself inside a changed system (first the teacher describes, then the children continue). For instance: we are traveling inside a huge boot magnified by the Little Giant. What do we see, hear, feel? (N 64, 65). (20)

  • LESSON 1.


    LESSON 17.
    LESSON 18.
    LESSON 24.

    LESSON 25.

    LESSON 26.
    LESSON 27.



    Purpose of the lesson:
    Imagination line
    Tool line
    Information line
    Productive activities
    Tuning reproductive imagination
    Acquaintance with the wizard who divides and combines objects
    Drawing from imagination


    A bright saucer, a toy - the main character of the lesson (optionally), an enlarged sheet of the workook.


    1. The teacher gets acquainted with children, deciphers the term "CID", explains the goal of the lesson to the children (WE COMPOSE A VERY LONG FAIRYTALE ABOUT THE WONDERFUL FICTITIOUS COUNTRY). What does it mean TO IMAGINE - to imagine things which are not in front of us".
    (5 minutes)

    2. Training in imagining (5). The teacher shows a magic saucer. If a child imagines it on the desk in front of him or mentally suspends it in the air before his eyes, imagined objects will appear on it. Children will attentively examine the saucer, listen how it sounds, touch its surface (the perception channels are switched on). They put an imagined sparrow on the saucer and describe it in 3 channels. For the success achieved in these exercises the children get imaginary tickets to the Fictitious Country. Each child names the color of his ticket.
    (10 minutes)

    3. The children open work-books and read the word "Fictitious Country", outline the first letter with a color pencil and draw their ticket in the first window.
    (3 minutes)

    3. The voyage to the Fictitious Country. The children imitate the sounds produced by the train.

    5. Acquaintance with Break-Build Wizard. Reading a guide to how to call the Wizard. To do this:


  • Prove that this one object actually contains MANY OBJECTS. For instance, there is one pencil, but it consists of lead, paint, wooden shell; a comb is one, but is has many teeth, etc.

    Possible conclusions:

    An object is one, but it consists of many parts

    And one more:

    One object has many features.

    Before the children's eyes the teacher divides an object into parts, then combines the parts and comments: I show you what Break-Build Wizard deals with. The children learn that Break-Build Wizard is responsible for dividing and combining. A motion support is used, for instance, the children spread their palms to the word Break and grip their fingers to the word Build.
    (10 minutes)

    6. The teacher proposes to solve the following problem: Is their Break-Build Wizard here, in the Fictitious Country? And the class arrives to a conclusion, that Break-Build Wizard is everywhere, where something is divided and combined. What is he like? They can answer this question all together. The children ask questions (Has he a beard? What does he wear?) and answer these questions themselves using their own notion of wizards. If the class is inactive, the teacher asks questions. Break-Build Wizard shows at least one detail (for instance, a cap). He asks the children to draw some of his parts in their notebooks (one of the parts they imagine or part of his cap).

    If there is no time left, the task is given as homework.

    7. The rite of leaving the Fictitious Country (similarly to entering - by train). (Further on called Leaving Rite).


    Purposes of the lesson:

    Imagination line
    Tool line
    Information line
    Productive activities
    Imagining how the object changes (accompanied by the teacher's comments)
    Choosing an object by a specified feature, classifying by feature.
    Forming the notion of "feature segmentation" (color - color shades).
    Remembering the colors of rainbow, names of shades of red.
    Fixing an imaginary changing object in drawing in the form of a shooting sheet.


    2. There is the COLOR street in front of us. At the entrance we see a strange poster: "EVERY HUNTER WANTS TO KNOW WHERE THE PHEASANT IS SITTING". What is it doing here? What is it for? (WE FIND OUT THAT THIS POSTER IS FOR REMEMBERING THE MAIN COLORS OF THE RAINBOW). The children paint out the circle in WB, using the colors of the rainbow in the right order, and play "the circle claps" game (the teacher declares from what color and in what direction the children should move and claps several times. Each clap means a transfer to a new color. The teacher stops and the children check whether their color coincides with that at which the teacher stopped. Find out whether the rainbow has all colors. What colors are absent? At home the children will try to paint a FLOWER different colors; they will paint every petal a different color.

    3. Amazing beings live in the first house. They can change their skin. The teacher shows a ball - an inhabitant of the street. Let's shut the eyes and imagine how this inhabitant can change. Imagine that the ball starts growing, becomes as big as a chair and then even bigger. Then it starts elongating, becomes like a snake and creeps up and down the classroom walls. And now it turns into a spinner and sings…, and now he is fluffy and reminds an elephant…. (The children raise their hands to make signals to the teacher that they have imagined everything). Who can say what doesn't change in our ball? (COLOR DOESN'T CHANGE). So the inhabitants of these houses change everything but the COLOR. Let's make a drawing in WB of how a white inhabitant changes and then how a red one does. Compare the drawings.

    4. It is clear that these beings choose relatives also by color. Let's find the relatives of a red inhabitant in the classroom (those wearing red clothes) and discuss who of them is a blood relative and who is distant. The children find objects-relatives around themselves and put some of them on the teacher's table.

    5. It is the rule with the inhabitants of this street that all relatives live in the same house. But the houses became too small for them. So the red inhabitants decided to build a house consisting of three blocks (see WB). The problem is how to distribute them among the houses if all the houses are red. (LET'S DISCUSS: GROUPING BY SHAPE IS NO GOOD, BECAUSE ANY INHABITANT OF THE COLOR STREET CAN EASILY CHANGE ITS SHAPE. THE CONCLUSION IS THAT OBJECTS OF THE SAME COLOR (FOR INSTANCE, RED) CAN BE GROUPED BY SHADES OF THIS COLOR. Now let's paint the ovals on the scheme in WB, where it is proposed to divide each of the rainbow colors into 3 shades. We see that the rainbow, even with all shades of its colors, does not have all colors! Now think of the homework.


    LESSON 17

    Purposes and tasks of the lesson:
    Imagination line
    Tool line
    Information line
    Productive activities
    Imagining fantastic objects ("Color street"), independent oral description
    Repeating the "verbal drawing" (combining parts of an imagined picture), solving problems through support formulations, finding methods for changing colors.
    Learning new names of colors, remembering the methods for obtaining complex colors.
    Blending paints, drawing a portrait of Wicked Eraser

    TEACHING AIDS: pots with blue and yellow paints, blue and yellow pencils or felt-tip pens, a sheet of white paper on the blackboard, a brush.



    1. Checking the homework: the children name colors of their flowers without repeating them. The winner is the last one who names a color.

    2. Imagining the Color street, describing it. Drawing some simple details of landscape on the blackboard and linking them to each other. Describing the obtained result trying to imagine this picture in bright colors. (15)

    3. The inhabitants of the street ask us for help. The problem is that the Wicked Eraser raided the Color street again and ate all green color. Imagine that the picture you have just drawn hasn't color. What shall we do? (The green color is unavailable in the Fictitious Country at the moment. The inhabitants ask Break-Build Wizard. He answers enigmatically: I only can divide and combine. That's all. Are my abilities of use? (WE FIND OUT THAT THE GREEN COLOR CAN BE PRODUCED BY COMBINING YELLOW AND BLUE). If this question is simple for the children, get down to producing other colors, including "non-rainbow" ones, for instance, brown.

    4. The children draw the portrait of the Wicked Eraser.

    5. The grateful inhabitants of the street teach us to play their favorite game "change the color". The children compete in finding DIFFERENT methods for changing the color of, for instance, a rubber ball (painting with chalk, wrapping in a piece of cloth, throwing - the color seems different in flight, etc).

    6. As you know, many inhabitants of the Color street can change everything except color. That is why they like to look at beings capable of changing the color BY THEMSELVES. The homework is to draw animals that can change color. They will live in the zoo situated in the Color street.


    LESSON 18

    Purposes and tasks of the lesson:

    Imagination line
    Tool line
    Information line
    Productive activities
    Imagining familiar objects in dynamics (animals that change color). Independent oral description.
    Solving a task using support formulations, solving a contradiction by different methods (notion of methods of solving contradictions).
    Fixing resolution of contradiction in drawings (dark - light). Drawing from imagination.

    TEACHING AIDS: A toy gnome.


    1. Entrance rite.

    2. We travel around an imaginary zoo inhabited by beings capable of changing their color (octopus, sandling, chameleon). Describe how they behave and what they do.

    3. The Color street does not end with the zoo. There is a wide river starting at its end (see the map in WB). Here we meet a traveling gnome who also brought us his problem. A gnome wanted to go on a voyage to meet his friends. His boat was small, it could not bear excess weight. The gnome decided to go for a short time and not to take too much clothing with him. He put on a dark suit, justly thinking that his friend will then better see him (and he wanted to meet them directly on the river). What do you think happened to him? (HIS FRIENDS DID NOT NOTICE HIM, BECAUSE HE MET THEM IN THE DARK AND HIS DARK SHIRT WAS UNSEEN. Then the gnome went on a voyage again. That time he put on a light shirt. And what happened? (THAT TIME, AS LUCK WOULD HAVE IT, HE MET HIS FRIENDS UNDER A GLINTING SUN AND THE FRIENDS DID NOT NOTICE HIM). The gnome asks us to solve the problem: What color should be the shirt for his friends to see it any time of a day? HIS SHIRT SHOULD BE BOTH DARK AND LIGHT.

    HOW TO MAKE SUCH A SHIRT? (A STRIPED SAILOR'S FROCK) The children draw a striped sailor's frock for the gnome.

    4.Another favorite competition in the Color street. There are balls drawn in WB. Paint them so that they become both dark and light, but try to find AS MANY QUITE DIFFERENT SOLUTIONS AS POSSIBLE).

    5. If there is time left, let children imagine and draw the COLOR street.

    LESSON 24

    Purposes and tasks of the lesson:

    Imagination line
    Tool line
    Information line
    Productive activities
    Imagining familiar objects in k-channel. Imagining objects using the specified description of features
    (the object is not named)
    Describing an object in accordance with specified features. Modeling by LCM (review). Independently revealing the object features (the "Yes-No" game).
    Composing and writing down descriptive riddles using a support.

    1. Entrance rite.

    2. Checking and discussing the homework.

    3. Little Giant and his daughter invite us for a walk in the Park of Riddles. We go there by boat. As we approach it we describe what we SEE, HEAR AND FEEL THERE.

    4. There is a big tree in front of us. A mysterious being peeps out of its hole and says: I am shaped into a sphere, my color is orange, I am of the size of a small ball, there are solid and liquid creatures inside me". The children learn to solve the riddle. They shut their eyes and imagine what is described in the riddle. Each child who has already imagined the ball raises his hand. Now the children must paint the ball orange and make it bright. Who has managed? Now imagine the size, the one described in the riddle…" If you have solved the riddle, do not call out the answer, but tell it into the teacher's ear (sometimes the children draw the answer). NOTE: further on it is necessary to repeatedly return to the problem of HOW TO IMAGINE THE ANSWER.

    5. Then we meet an amusement park on our way. Here we can propose riddles to one another. The riddles in this park are composed using different supports (see WB):
    SHAPE SUPPORT _____________(HOW) _____________
    COLOR SUPPORT_________________________________
    SIZE SUPPORT ____ (HOW)________________________

    WHAT DOES IT CONSIST OF (A DRAWING MADE OF LITTLE CREATURES) Let's start a game: one pupil leaves the classroom and stays behind the door. He is a riddle solver. The rest of the children will compose riddles for him. Objects are proposed by the teacher: a matchbox, a pot, a bulb, a plum and the like.

    NOTE: simple shapes (cylinder, cone) can be just named, as for more complex shapes, it would be more convenient to compare them (for instance, as a boat); as for size, it is always necessary to compare it (a given object is bigger or smaller than some familiar object.) In this case, however, it is necessary to specify the size meant). It is not necessary to make a detailed drawing in the last column, but just to indicate the little creatures constituting the object (to draw one liquid and one solid creature). The children can either write or draw the answer to the riddles.

    6. There is a game computer in the Park of Riddle. It also proposes a riddle, but it itself does not tell us anything about a mysterious object. It only can answer "yes" or "no" to our questions. If it is impossible to give such an answer, the program failure occurs and the computer clicks. The teacher imitates the computer and the children ask question (6).



    Purposes and tasks of the lesson:

    Imagination line
    Tool line
    Information line
    Productive activities
    Imagining familiar objects in A-channels (according to a specified description). "Constructing object according to specified features (solving riddles).
    Solving a "changing feature" problem (changing sounding)
    Learning new names of sounds
    Fixing the "bank of sounds" in a notebook.


    2.Checking homework. The children propose their riddles, solve riddles. The most interesting part is drawing (it takes up to 20 minutes).

    3.We enter another city. At the first glance it is rather plain. But there are so many trees, birds, and animals in it! The sounds of music come from every window, the chant of birds; sometimes just creak or even sirens are heard. But when we come closer it suddenly becomes quiet. Did the inhabitants hide when they saw strangers? Did something happen to our ears? (To make sure that we hear well, let's play a game (the sounds in the classroom… in the hall… in the street…) (5 minutes).

    4. .For the sounds not to be afraid of us, ask each pupil to produce one sound but so that the sounds do not repeat. Let the children give names to some sounds if possible. Then ask some of the children to repeat the sounds, which registered. (5 minutes)

    5.Creatures producing different sounds live in the houses of the City of Sounds: those who cheep live in one house, those who rattle live in another house, etc. Let's collect a bank of sounds in WB and connect with arrows the figures of the dwellers and their houses.
    (5 minutes)

    6.The bucket is tired of living in the same house with those who rattle. It wants to move to another house and asks us for help. To do this, the bucket must learn to produce a different sound (POSSIBLE SOLUTION: POUR WATER INTO THE BUCKET. IT WILL BUBBLE.)
    (5 minutes)

    7. Home task: continue collecting sounds.

    LESSON 26

    Purposes and tasks of the lesson:

    Imagination line
    Tool line
    Information line
    Productive activities
    Imagining fantastic objects (Color street), independent oral description.
    Repeating the "verbal drawing" (combining the parts of an imagined picture), solving a problem using support formulations, revealing color change methods.
    Forming notions about sound source and about different abilities of substances to conduct sound.
    Sound modeling by the LCM (theatricalization)


    2. Checking homework. The children name or emit new sounds.
    (5 minutes)

    3. Here some sounding object appears (for instance, a balalaika with a phis drawn on it.) which agrees to be our guide. It asks us a tricky question: do we know where sounds come from? Let's make some experiment: emit a sound by tickling one of the balalika's strings and then make so that it doesn't emit sound (you'll have to string it). Then try to emit a sound with the aid of a ruler attached to a table, and then pronounce something yourselves putting your hands on your necks. Let's draw a conclusion: EVERYTHING THAT TREMBLES EMITS SOUND. What trembles when we speak to one another? (AIR).
    (10 minutes)

    4. Examining attentively the map of the city of sounds (work with the map). There are two wide and very long streets in the city of sounds. One of them is called the Loudness Highway and the other one is called the High-Rise Alley. When an inhabitant walks along the Loudness Highway, its sounds change from very quiet to terribly loud. (LET US DISCUSS WHERE AND WHEN YOU HEARD VERY QUIET SOUNDS AND VERY LOUD SOUNDS). LET'S WALK ALONG THE LOUDNESS HIGHWAY NAMING INCREASINGLY LOUD SOUNDS AND THEIR SOURCES (a palpitation of the leaves, plash of waves, the noise produced by water flowing from a tap, loud voice, the footsteps of a giant…)
    (5 minutes)

    5. It is interesting to know how this Highway of Loudness is organized? How can one make a sound quieter or louder? Take a whistle and try to change its sound by different methods. (The children will possibly propose to use something that absorbs sound (for instance, cloth), or something that amplifies it (for instance, a voice-pipe).
    (10 minutes)

    6. There is one more question: suppose, a car is going along the Loudness Highway while you are standing at the opposite end of the Highway. When and why will you hear the sound sooner: when putting your ear to the ground or when standing as usually. The little creatures will help you answer this question. Let children represent solid little creatures. Since sound is a wave, let us represent it by pushing the last creature (he will pass the push to the following one and so on). Now let us do the same with the liquid little creatures and, finally, with the gaseous little creatures, which move chaotically and transfer hits during their random meetings. Which little creatures transfer sound (pushes) better and faster? Where does the sound propagate better: in a solid, liquid or gaseous substance? Write down the answer in WB.
    (10-15 minutes)

    NOTE: A question may arise here why, for instance, a hard pillow does not carry sound well. The explanation: when the creatures hold one another's hands not rigidly, they transfer hits not in one direction, but in different directions, so the hit just cannot go too far.


    LESSON 27

    Purposes and tasks of the lesson:

    Imagination line
    Tool line
    Information line
    Productive activities
    Restoring an image through a specified sound.
    Notion of the dependence of the pitch and duration of sound on its source.
    Copying sounds, playing in an "orchestra of noises".


    2. Let's continue our tour of the City of Sounds. Let's return to the bank again. One of the pupils emits sounds, other children say what they are like ("This is the squeak of a mouse…", the scratch of a knife on glass…, the doors is not oiled…").
    (5 minutes)

    3. The balalaika keeps on acquainting us with the life of sounds. We walk along the High-Rise Alley. At its very beginning the sounds have the highest pitch, then the pitch becomes lower and lower. Who can produce high-pitch and low-pitch sounds by tickling one string of the balalaika? What does the sound pitch depend on? Try to do the same with the ruler and other objects. Find out that the sound pitch depends on the string size. NOTE: this dependence is well illustrated with the aid of a collapsible child's pipe. By removing a section by section, one can change the pitch height.

    4. We sail down the River of Duration. Here sounds change from the shortest ones to terribly long. The river flows in the Ocean of Sounds. Discuss what the sound duration depends on (why one sound is long and another one is short? Think of and make experiments.
    (5 minutes)

    5. Now we can visit the School of Sounds where the inhabitants of the city learn to correctly emit different sounds using guides. Train to emit sounds in accordance with the guide (without copying). For instance: Emit, please, a squeak as high as the frog's voice, 2 sec long and loud as the school bell.
    5 minutes)

    6.If there is time left, you can propose children to organize "orchestras of quiet music" on the desks ("quiet" is a very important remark here).
    (5 minutes)


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    07 Apr 2002