Programs of CID course ...
LIST OF REFERENCE
PROGRAM OF CREATIVE IMAGINATION DEVELOPMENT (CID) COURSE BASED ON THE THEORY OF INVENTION PROBLEM SOLVING (TRIZ)
for elementary school
© Alla Nesterenko, Petrozavodsk, 1996-1999
Teacher of the Creative Imagination Development Course
PROGRAM OF TRIZ-BASED CID COURSE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
3rd and 4th quarters of the 3rd grade and entire 4th grade (54 hours)
CONTENT OF TOPICAL TASKS
If the 2nd period is devoted to the creation of a systematic picture of the world, in the 3rd period, this picture is considered in dynamics (it is just why the Work-Book is called "Changes and Transformations". The course starts with studying events, processes and links. Then properties (values of features) are studied at a higher level: changeability, measurability, and relativity. The process of creating the picture of the world finishes by independently revealing the methods of separation of opposite properties of objects (which are used in problem solving as the method for separating the contradicting properties of objects). The notion of a group is introduced here in the acquaintance plan (if there is propaedeutics of informatics or logic in class, this material can be omitted and the models of this course can be used for the notion of the class of objects).
In the second part of the course, the main notions of the system approach are introduced: the system as a set of elements possessing a system property; the system function, supersystem, subsystem, atnisystem, co-system. In principle, the children worked with these models in the second grade at a naive level. At this level we'll prepare them for the use of the TRIZ language and models at the medium stage.
This part is devoted to the use of the already studied tools for the creation of fantastic objects and fantastic situations. The children continue solving problems in a dialog, work on the link between the notions TC - IFR, IFR - PhC, search for operative zone and operative time, reveal methods for solving PhC.
As in the program of the 2nd period, the imagination line in the first part runs parallel to the tool line. Starting with the 2nd part, no new imagination development tasks are envisaged, the teacher should him/herself take care of reproducing imagination training at the lesson.
At this stage, the productive activities are represented by the synthesis of proverbs, making shooting sheets of well-known and children's own plots. It makes sense to regularly reproduce the synthesis of ciphered riddles (the ready-for-use Box of Riddles is given in the Work-Book.)
Unlike in the 1st and 2nd training periods, the information line here is loaded with the TRIZ conceptual apparatus (IFR, contradiction, system, etc.).
EXPECTED TRAINING RESULTS
It is supposed that after finishing the 3rd training period the pupils will be able:
to reveal some obvious and hidden processes in objects;
to make a shooting sheet of the process, to clearly describe the content of shots;
to establish logical links between shots ("parts of the process");
to make a shooting sheet of a specified plot and to evaluate the situation from the point of view of the plot characters;
to model fantastic changes of processes with the aid of principles-wizards and to evaluate consequences of such changes;
to reveal the system property of an object, to determine the function of artificial systems:
to formulate IFR by choosing a zone and time of producing it in the dialog;
to use the TC formulation when evaluating a solution;
to formulate TC and to know how to solve it by at least three methods (in parts, in time, by system transfer);
to aim independently at IFR when looking for resource.
to create dynamic images;
to create the image of IFR when solving an inventive problem;
to imagine unfamiliar (fictional, fantastic objects) in dynamic.
to know the formulations of IFR, TC, PhC;
to know at least 3 methods of resolving PhC;
to have the notion of the system, subsystem, supersystem, function.
to know the wizards who embody the principles of fantasizing.
to synthesize proverbs by linking the shots of the shooting sheet;
to build "contradiction-based riddles";
to invent fantastic heroes using the wizards-principles;
to invent and draw fantastic plots according to a specified general plan.
Groups of objects. "Group lift"
Generalization as neglecting of some features of objects. Specification as addition of features. Building a three-storey "group lift".
Changes that occur in objects (events). Dividing a process into parts. Making shooting sheets of processes. Cause-and-effect relationship. Relationships in the Real World and in the World of Images (Looking-Glass World).
Properties of objects (feature values)
Diversity of properties. Manifestation of properties. Relativity of properties. Changeability. Measurable properties. Real and seeming properties. Dependence of properties on the environment. Methods for separating contradictions in systems - methods for resolving contradictions.
Notion of a system
System-forming properties. "Creating" and "destroying" a system. The notion of subsystem, supersystem, and function. Functions in artificial systems. Separating contradictions in Real World and the World of Images.
Fantastic changes of properties
The number line method. Changing the feature values by the number line method, describing the produced fantastic object. Tracing the environment and supersystem changes connected with the change in a feature. Evaluating fantastic objects. Fantastic changes of composition and supersystem.
||Solving inventive problems
||Groups of objects. Notion of a group. Methods of grouping by features. Notion of a "group lift".
||IFR as an image of an answer. Writing down the IFR formulation.
||Changes. Event - change in a system. Process as a chain of changes.
||"The IFR image" (constructing an image of a solution)
||How to change a process (changing the process rate, the direction of motion. Wizards: Little Giant, Give-Take, Inversion Fairy.
||Notion of TC (technical contradiction). Formulating TC using a support "if.. then (+), but (-).
||Shooting sheets of processes and linking the shots. Synthesis of proverbs.
||Link between TC and IFR. The rule of transfer from TC formulation to IFR.
||Shooting sheets of fairytales. Evaluating events for different characters. Synthesis of proverbs. Proverbs for different characters.
||Causes and effects in the Real World, the Looking-Glass World, the Fantastic World.
||Properties (values of features). Review. Work with the bank of features. Diversity of properties.
||Training the main skills in problem solving. TC, IFR.
||Relativity of properties.
Changeability of properties.
||IFR and the properties of a sought-for resource.
("The Book of Contradictions").
|Problems with distinct PhC, formulating PhC, solving problems in a dialog.
||System and system property.
Methods of destroying a system.
|Resolving PhC in problems.
||Subsystems. Supersystems. The function of a system.
||Plan of search for an operative zone and operative time.
||Problem-solving tools (summing up). TC, IFR, PhC, resolving PhC (separation of contradictions). Revealing the time and place of changes.
||Fantastic changes of the properties of a character. Increasing-decreasing a property (The Number Line Method, "the Little Giant experiments"). Evaluating the consequences, making shooting sheets of comics.
||Review of the main TRIZ tools used to solve problems in a dialog.
||Adding and subtracting the properties (the principles of adding and subtracting, the experiments of Give-Take).
Evaluating the consequences, making shooting sheets of the comics.
||Dynamization. Changing some properties depending on the other ones. Freeze-Go Wizard. Evaluating the consequences, making a shooting sheet of the comics.
||Imagining and describing a fantastic object.
||Revealing problems occurring when an object (character) changes fantastically. Solving them by the TRIZ tools.
||Summing up, review.
TOPICAL TASK CONTENTS
(methodology by A.A.Nesterenko, N.N.Khomenko, I.N.Murashkovska)
|Determining a group of objects (here and further on see Work-Book if detailed definitions, algorithms and comments are absent).
Grouping by a feature (review).
The game "chain".
1st version: one pupil names three objects, other children guess by what feature they are combined; the one who guessed names his three objects and so on.
2nd version: one pupil names an objects, the second one names the group the object can enter, the third pupil names another object from this group and the forth one names a group for a new object, etc.).
- The group of waterproof!
- A waterproof object is the frog's skin!
- The frog's skin belongs to the group of "parts of a living being"!
- A part of a living being is palpi of an octopus!
- From the group of flexible!
- Wire… and so on. )
Building simple (three-storey) "group lifts" (may be replaced with the Eulier circles).
|Events - changes occurring to objects.
Auction: name the greatest possible number of events that occurred in the classroom for 3 minutes (while I was counting to 3). The following limits can be introduced: name events that are not connected with pupils! (water dropped from a tap, a particle of dust settled on a bulb, light reflected from a mirror…)
The 1st team names an object to which nothing happens (no changes occurs in it), the second team proves that some changes occur in it and vice versa (the time of changes can be limited).
Visible and hidden events: How to "reveal" such events?
(Discussing the question of how to prove that an event takes place.)
With a flower in a flowerpot, with a daylight lamp, with your pocket, etc. Do not fantasize! Speak only about real events!
(For instance, a flower in a flowerpot breathes, turns to light, particles of dust settle on it, sap moves in it…)
|Processes as a sequence, multitude of events.
Separation, comparison and separation of the notions "object" and "process".
|Fantastic change of processes (change in their characteristics-features).
Segmentation of a process (Break-Build's experiments): in fact, a more detailed shooting sheet is required here.
|Inversion of a process (experiments of Fairy of Inversion):
For instance, a change in motion direction (leaves do not fall down, but rise from the ground) or an exchange of roles (not leaves fall on a fence, but a fence falls on leaves).
|Increasing the rate of a process (or, vice versa, of time): leaves fall down very slowly: how will a picture look like?
|The game "identify a wizard".
The conductor (or pupils in turn) name a fantastic process, the rest of the children must guess who of the wizards has devised it.
|Making a shooting sheet of processes. Comments to shots (it is necessary to say distinctly what is drawn in each picture).
Establish links between the shots. Task: you can change something only in a shot from which an arrow is drawn (in the exercise, it is the shot where water is poured into a coffeepot). In the remaining shots you shouldn't make any changes. It is necessary to check how the second shot in the bunch (the one at which the arrow points) will be changed depending on the first shot. For instance, in the first shot water can be poured into a holed coffeepot (it is impossible to boil coffee in a holed coffeepot). Or no water can be poured into the coffeepot (if there is water, there is also water vapor; without water there will be smoke); and so on. From the above example, one can see how proverbs are composed by linking the shots.
|Making a shooting sheet of a process according to a preset result and synthesis of proverbs.
Filling missing shots of a process and synthesizing proverbs.
|A reverse task: reconstructing a process according to a proverb (proverbs).
|Making a shooting sheet of a fairytale and synthesis of proverbs. (The detailed algorithm of synthesis is given in WB-3).
|Before making a shooting sheet it is worth recollecting "the economical drawing" (draw schematically the characters of a fairytale in the right window). A fairytale is chosen by the teacher. We used to work with the fairytales "Lupunyushka", "A Lobster and a Fox" (Russian folktales), "A Lion, a Goat and a Man" (African folktale). It is better to take fairytales containing inventive problems in order to curtail 2 works into one. It is supposed that this work will be further used in the Speech Development Course.
|Causes and effects.
Restoring a cause.
When synthesizing proverbs, we linked pairs of shots, whereas here only the second shot is specified. It is necessary to restore the first shot so that a link is established. The task is fulfilled in three models: "Real World", "The Looking-Glass World", and Fantastic World".
For instance, if the second shot contains footmarks on a road, then in the Real World the teacher asks the question:
- Where did the footmarks come from? (The aim is to collect as many answers as possible, they may be the most extraordinary, but still realizable).
In the Looking-Glass World, the children first say what the drawing looks like (in the given example, the comparison is specified: footmarks are the road's tears). Then the question will sound in the following way: - Why does the road cry (who's offended it?) In the first shot, there should be a drawing explaining the selected image. Note that a real metaphor will be produced when one object is replaced with an image, the rest of them being preserved.
In the Fantastic World, the footmarks remain footmarks, but it is necessary to find the fantastic cause of their occurrence. The simplest version is that they should attract the wizards (for instance, Little Giant decreased a bear in size, the boot served as its den and it left such little footmarks.
|18, 19, 20
Similarly, effects should be invented in three models (so that the first shot should be necessarily the cause, i.e., there should be a link between the shots.
|21, 22, 23
|Then it is recommended to make a more detailed shooting sheet of the process, to practise by linking the shots of these process at different levels, then to compose proverbs.
Determining the property as the abbreviated name of a feature value. Variety of properties.
Yes-Know Game. "I thought of an object's property."
Auction of qualities. Recollecting hidden and revealed properties. Composing ciphered riddles with the aid of the Box.
|The relative character of properties (a house is slow relative to an airplane, but it is fast relative to a frog just because it is bigger than the frog). Fill a scheme: an elephant is big (relative to what?), small (relative to what) (give 2 alternatives).
|Doing the same, but the children think of properties themselves.
|Changing the properties. Revealing the methods of change. The work is organized to the following algorithm:
The "change quality" training.
1.The children are proposed to change the property of an object for an opposite one and to show, if possible, the result (to make a hard sheet of paper soft, a light piece of cloth heavy, etc.). In this case, it is necessary to specify that the object should be light or heavy for us, people.
2.The proposed changes should be fixed in a model of little creatures (theatricalization).
It is proposed to put a sheet of paper on a table: rigidly connected little creatures are added to loosely connected ones (those who hold each other by hand but their hands bend easily) and they are fastened by some other kind of little creatures.
It is proposed to crumple up (or fold in many times) a sheet of paper: the little creatures of the paper will be rearranged so that they are densely crowded or in alignment.
3. The obtained models are classified. In this case, the teacher shouldn't offer his or her own classification. It is better to accept the best of the variants proposed by the children. If no good result is obtained, repeat the training.
Normally, children reveal the following types of changes:
Adding the little creatures (in TRIZ terminology it is the principle of mediator);
Rearrangement of the little creatures (rebuilding the structure).
Also, the transformation into little creatures of a different kind is named, for instance, transformation of liquid little creatures into solid ones (changing the state of aggregation) by changing the temperature. The case is known when children practically approached the "adding of a field".
|Separating the opposites.
This task is based on the methods of Sychevs' "The Book of Contradictions".
Reading and discussing "The Book of Contradictions";
||O. and S.Sychev.
"The Book of Contradictions".
|Three pairs of contradictions are chosen (it is desirable that different pairs be given in different groups), they are written down in the table heading (as the names of columns);
A bank of examples is collected for each pair of opposites. In this case it is essential to specify that opposites should be separated within one object (not inside a set of objects) (it is not bread that can be hard, stale and soft, new, but bread is soft after it is baked and it becomes stale with time). In the process of collecting the bank, each example is discussed from the point of view of separation of opposites (the teacher asks the children to prove, explain how exactly the separation occurs). In this case, the teacher does not name the methods themselves.
||The Sychevs in their work propose to use the principle of resolving TC. Children adopt the principles well enough but I think it untimely to study the principles here.
|The collected banks are grouped by "similar solutions". For instance, a collapsible umbrella (long - short) gets into the same group with a fountain pen (write - doesn't write, more precisely: leave tracks - doesn't leave tracks) (because both these objects "have the property "->"at one time and have the property "<-" (opposite) at another time, one can say they are now "->", now "<-". In the work with elementary school children, it is convenient to fix the grouping of objects on the blackboard, so that it is easier for the children to discuss and separate the methods of resolving contradictions. It is desirable to obtain the following classification:
Separating in parts (part "->", part "<-"). For example: sofa (part of it is soft, part is hard).
Separating in time ("->" at one time and "<-" at another time. For example: plasticine is now soft, now hard).
System transfers (when alone it is "->", when together with something else it is "<-" (the mediator principle). For example: the candy wrapper is soft, but it becomes hard when there is a hard candy inside.
Each part is "->", the whole is "<-"). For example: A sack of sand (each part is hard, all together are soft). Resolution in actions can be singled out (one is ->, when heated it is <-) (for example, a phase transition, but in classic TRIZ it is considered separately).
Sometimes, separation in relations is singled out, which can be useful in solving problems occurring in non-technical systems ("->" relative to one "neighbor" and "<-" relative to another neighbor). For instance, an air bar lets a man pass, but doesn't let a mosquito pass.
||Here, there is a danger that children will use the principles not learning to analyze the physical contradiction itself. For information on resolving contradictions in the "children's" version see also A.A.Nesterenko. Happy Voyage in the Sea of Contradictions".
|Separation between the Real World and the Looking-Glass World (it is "->" in reality, but it looks like "<-"). For instance: "Sausage is non-magnetic in reality, but when I am hungry, it attracts me as a magnet".
With a good figurative thinking of children, the Looking-Glass World resolutions of contradictions appear in the bank themselves. If there is no such examples, you may ask children to give "The Looking-Glass World" examples.
|Systems and system properties.
The game "football". "Important and unimportant features. An object is chosen. One team names a feature, which it considers important (without this feature the objet cannot exist), the other team tries to prove that this feature is not indispensable, then vice versa.
Determining a system and revealing the system properties of different systems.
The training "Destroy the whole".
Some system (better a technical one, for instance, a bicycle, or a word) is chosen. It is proposed to invent the greatest possible number of versions of minimal changes to be made for the object to stop being itself (for instance, for a bicycle to stop being a bicycle). The children should substantiate their opinions. Usually set-tos arise (can a bicycle be still considered a bicycle if it is not fit for riding, even if it looks unchanged; is a word still a word if it doesn't mean anything). In the end, the children arrive at a conclusion that a system can be considered a system if it fulfills its function.
|Training-chain. One of the pupils names a system, another one proposes a method for destroying it, the third one proves that the destroyed system is still a system, but it has a different system property.
For example: Clock - To take apart - A mosaic can be made from the clock's part…
|Combining separate objects into a system, search for a system property for a set of objects (the number of objects can be gradually increased). Then this task is fulfilled in notebooks.
|The system property and function (the system property makes it possible to fulfill the function).
|Subsystems and their functions.
Training (can be conducted in the mode of the "football" game: some pupils name the subsystem of an object and other children should explain what is its function. (Note that a chair needs legs not for standing, it doesn't matter for the chair to stand or not to stand. The legs allow the chair to hold a man in a sitting position. To find it out, it is enough to ask a question: What would happen if there were no such a system?
You may try to pass to the Looking-Glass World, to animate a chair. It's quite possible that the live chair will need legs for walking and standing. But the notions of the Real World and the Looking-Glass world should be clearly distinguished.
||This material is absent as yet. The gap will be filled in the near future.
|Supersystems and their functions. Building a system lift with indicating the system's function.
|The system lift in time. Multi-screen scheme. Filling the multi-screen schemes. Solving inventive problems and revealing an operative zone and operative time (based on the multiscreen scheme).
|Fantastic changes of properties.
Below is the list of methodological principles in the order of increasing complexity. It is supposed that, by inventing fantastic objects with children, the teacher will in succession introduce new principles in the work increasing the volume of work with one object.
1.Changing and describing objects on behalf of an outsider.
Change a system using the principle of fantasizing, describe the changes system (I see… hear… feel_ (oral work, then fulfilling a written task in the WB).
How will the function change (an air ball is increased to the size of a city, what can it be used for?)
What pros and cons will appear (the "Good-Bad game)?
Complicating the Good-Bad game (see materials of the 1st grade). In particular, tracing the conflicts of the changed object with the environment.
Choosing the "brightest" conflicts, formulating and solving the problems.
Drawing episodes in the form of comics.
2. Changing a hero and describing how he sees the surrounding world. Describing the environment (I see… hear… feel). Then as in point 1.
"When I Become a Wizard".
|Increasing-decreasing a property (Little Giant Wizard)
|"Adding" - "subtracting" a property (Give-Take)
|Change in some properties due to change in other properties
|Describing a fantastic object, evaluation of possible situations, solving inventive problems (complex work).
LIST OF REFERENCE
1. Altov, G. And Here an Inventor Appeared. Moscow: Detskaya Literature, 1976.
2. Gafitulin, M.S. Still Janus-Faced. Pedagogics + TRIZ, N 2 (ed. By A.A.Gin). Gomel: IPP SOZH, 1997.
3. Gafitulin, M.S. Kind Wind in a Bloodthirsty Plant. Pedagogics + TRIZ (ed. By A.A.Gin). Gomel: IPP SOZH, 1997.
4. Gafitulin, M.S., S.V.Sychev. "Systema R (Podvizhnye Igry) // TRIZ Magazine. - 1991. N2.2.
5. Gin, S.I. Da I Net Nie Govorite (Don't Say Yes and No). Pedagogics + TRIZ (ed. By A.A.Gin). Gomel: IPP SOZH, 1997.
6. Gin. S.I. Mir Cheloveka (The World of the Man). Gomel: "TRIZ-Snans", 1995.
7. Gin, S.I. Mir Cheloveka (The World of the Man). Gomel: "TRIZ-Snans", 1996
8. Gin, S.I. Mir Logiki (The World of Logic). Gomel: "TRIZ-Shans", 1998.
9. Ivanov, G.I. Formuly Tvorchestva ili kak nauhitsia izobretat. (Creation Formulas or How to Learn To Invent). M. Prosveschenie, 1994).
10. Kleimikhina, T., and S.Kreinina. Ot Neznaiki to… (From No-Nothing to…). S-Ph.: "Akcidient", 1996.
11. Menshikov, S. Da-Netka - Igra Rasvivayuschaya. "Pedagogics + TRIZ", Issue 2 (ed. by A.A.Gin). Gomel: IPP SOZH, 1997.
12. Murashkovska, I.N. Kogda Ya Stanu Volshebnikom. (When I Become a Wizard). Riga, in: "Poznanie", N5/1993.
13. Murashkovska, I.N., and N.P.Valums. Kartinki bez Zapinki (Easy Pictures). S-Ph., "TRIZ-SHANS", 1995.
14. I.N.Murashkovska. Igry dlia Zaniatiy s Detmy Mladshego Vozrasta. In "Pedagogics + TRIZ, issue 1 (ed. by A.A.Gin), Gomel: IPP SOZH, 1997.
15. Nesterenko, A.A. Strana Zagadok (The Land of Riddles). Pachatkovaya Shkola, 1995. NN.10-12.
16. Nesterenko, A.A. Kit I Kot. (Whale and Cat). TRIZ Magazine. 1991, N2.2.
17. Nesterenko , A.A. Navyk Tvorchestva. (The Skill of Creating). Pachatkovaya Shkola. 1994, N9.
18. Nesterenko, A.A. Puteshestvie v Zazerkalie. (Travelling to the Looking Glass World). Petrozavodsk, Lyceum news-paper., N4/1995, Minsk: Pachatkovaya Shkola, N11/106, "Pedagogics +TRIZ, issue 2 (ed. by A.A.Gin), Gomel: IPP SOZH, 1997.
19. Nesterenko, A.A. Mozhno li Ugodit Vsem: Vzgliad na Problemu Interesa v Nachalnoi Shkole. (Is it Possible to Please Everybody: Approach to the Problem of Interest at the Elementary School). Na Putiach k Novoi Shkole. 1995, N1.
20. Nesterenko, A.A. Razbuditie Spiaschuyu Tsarevnu. (Awake the Sleeping Princess). Petrozavodsk, Lyceum news-paper, N5/1996, Minsk, Pachatkovaya Shkola - 1996, N11.
21. Nesterenko, A.A. Chitat ili Prichitat. Minsk, Pachatkovaya Shkola, 1996, N9.
22. Nesterenko, A.A. Schastlivogo Plavania v Mire Protivorechiy. (Happy Voyage in the World of Contradictions). Prazdniki Detstva//Pachatkovaya Shkola, 1995, N3.
23. Nesterenko, A.A. Igry po RTV dlya Doshkolnikov I Mladshikh Shkolnikov. (CID Games for Preschoolers and Schoolchildren). In Pedagogics + TRIZ, issue 2 (ed. by A.A.Gin), Gomel: IPP SOZH, 1997.
24. Nesterenko, A.A. Sekrety Tvorsheskogo Treninga (Secretes of Creativity Traning). Creation Technology, N3, 1999.
25. Gifted Children. Trasl from Engl./ Ed. G.V.Burmenskaya and V.M.Slutsky. M: Progress,1991.
26. Selyutsky, A.B., and G.I.Slugin. Vdokhnovenie po Zakazu. (Inspiration to Order). Petrozavodsk: Karelia, 1972.
27. Sidorchuk, T.A. Stories about… Ulianovsk, 1996.
28. Sidorchuk, T.A., and A.B.Kuznetsova. Obuchenie Doshkolnikov Tvorcheskomu rasskazyvaniu po kartinke (Teaching Creative Story-Telling to Preschoolers). Ulianovsk: UlGTU, 1997.
29. Sychev O.I., and S.V.Sychev. Kniga Protivoreshiy (The Book of Contradictions). TRIZ Magazine, 1992, N2.4.
30. Khomenko, N.N. Igra "Da-Net" v obushenii TRIZ. (Yes-No Game in TRIZ Training). TRIZ Magazine, 1992, N2.4.
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